A comparison of national sustainability schemes for solid biomass in the EU
There are no harmonised sustainability criteria for bioenergy or the sourcing of biomass across the European Union (EU). EU Member States have therefore largely relied on domestic Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) rules to guide...
Do FLEGT VPAs improve governance?
Fern has published research showing that the FLEGT Voluntary Partnership Agreements (VPAs) have led to clear improvements in forest governance. the publication of the research came as the European Commission released an...
Going beyond 40% - options to ensure LULUCF maintains high environmental integrity of the EU climate and energy package
As the ratification process for the Paris Climate Agreement begins, a new study produced by the Oeko-Institut for Fern has shown how the EU’s new policy on land and forests could help it to be more ambitious on its climate change...
Designing a LULUCF pillar that works for forests and climate
This report by the Institute for European Environmental Policy was commissioned by Fern to develop proposals for how best to include the Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF) sector's emissions and removals in the EU’s...
Impacts on the EU 2030 climate target of including LULUCF in the climate and energy policy framework
The European Union (EU) has a target to reduce emissions by at least 40 per cent by 2030. This is an economy-wide target and therefore includes the Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF) sector. This study looks at how to...
Less and Better: Making EU Consumption Policies Work for People and Forests
This report explores possible solutions to the EU's huge foodprint, including the opportunity to link health and environmental benefits in encouraging deforestation-free consumption. The study identifies action points, such as...
Fighting Fossil Fuels First Making EU climate policy work for people and forests
This study refocuses attention on the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions domestically, without offloading responsibilities onto other countries through offsets. It explores why forests cannot offset fossil fuel emissions; and...
Duty Free? Making EU tariffs Work for People and Forests
This report asks whether the EU can set lower tariffs for products identified as sustainably produced. It raises issues surrounding practical implications of doing so, such as World Trade Organisation applicability and political...
Catching it all: Making EU illegal logging policies work better for people and forests
This report explores how trade in agricultural commodities undermines important EU timber trade reforms. It recommends a course of action that extends Forest Law Enforcement Governance and Trade-like mechanisms to agricultural...
Clear Cut: Making EU financial institutions work for people and forests
This report examines the activities of different financial institutions and their involvement in forest-risk agriculture. It investigates specific voluntary policies intended to address environmental, social and governance issues...