Since 2009, the EU’s Renewable Energy Directive (RED) has allowed Member States to subsidise energy from burning biomass. The aim was to cut emissions, but the impact has been disastrous: Member States have transformed coal power stations to burn wood, cut their own forests for fuel, and even imported trees from the USA and beyond.

This has been disastrous for the climate, forests and people’s health. The EU’s Renewable Energy Directive (RED) ignores a fundamental principle: that forests are a natural carbon sink, and wood is a limited resource which is a source of  carbon dioxide (when burnt). Many scientists have warned that increasing the combustion of wood is not compatible with the emergency posed by our climate breakdown: we only have a decade left to drastically limit our CO2 emissions. Furthermore, the EU’s reliance on forest biomass for renewable energy is incompatible with , its goal to achieve climate neutrality by 2050. 

What do Fern and our partners want? 

Socially and environmentally friendly EU climate and energy policies and an end to EU subsidies for large-scale use of forest biomass for energy.

What are we doing? 

Fern is helping coordinate the individuals and organisations from around the world campaigning to prevent increasing reliance on forest biomass for energy.


What is Bioenergy?

Bioenergy is gas or electricity that comes from renewable sources, such as plant matter or animal waste. 

This is known as biomass.

Biomass contains energy stored from the sun. This energy is absorbed during the photosynthesis process. 

When biomass is burned, its chemical energy is released as heat.

Biomass is often burned on a local scale to heat homes and to provide heat for cooking (mainly in less developed countries), and as such is an important part of many peoples’ livelihoods.

However, bioenergy is more often spoken about in terms of the large-scale and intensive harvesting and burning of wood from forests in the US, Canada, and Europe. Today, most biomass which is burnt for energy on this scale comes from trees, and more worryingly, from forests.

Find out more here.


What is BioEnergy Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS)?

The climate emergency is on the verge of becoming a climate crisis. Years of inaction have meant that climate scientists are no longer just discussing the need to reduce emissions, they are also talking about having to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Known as negative emissions, carbon dioxide removals are now at the centre of the climate conversation.

Governments are responding by looking for technological fixes, and one of the most often discussed is Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS). But the belief that BECCS would remove emissions is based on the faulty assumption that bioenergy is carbon neutral. This is not the case. BECCS would also have massive social, environmental and economic costs. It offers the false promise of a get-out clause and must not be allowed to distract from the urgent need to stop burning fossil fuels and to protect and restore forests, soils and other ecosystems.

Read more


What are the alternatives to bioenergy and BECCS?

The answers are surprisingly simple.

Instead of burning forests for energy, we can reduce the amounts of energy we use and invest in and subsidise local, real renewable energy technologies such as wind and solar.

To achieve negative emissions (the aim of BECCS) the answer is even more logical. Protecting and restoring natural forests would benefit biodiversity and also bring climate and social benefits. Unlike BECCS, restoring natural forests’ climate benefits are tried and tested. Forests already store large quantities of carbon and they have been sequestering carbon for hundreds of millions of years. If protected and managed with the full inclusion of the people that live in and depend upon them, they can help us achieve the targets of Paris Agreement and the Sustainable Development Goals. But first we must reject a heavy reliance on negative emissions and rapidly reduce emissions from fossil fuels to zero, stop destroying ecosystems, and reduce the overconsumption of natural resources.

Read more about the alternatives to bioenergy and BECCS.

November 2016

European Commission proposes that inefficient bioenergy power stations should be exempt from receiving public subsidies.

June 2017

Lead rapporteur on the bioenergy sustainability criteria, Bas Eickhout, proposes only genuine waste and residues from trees should count towards the EU renewable energy target.

December 2017

800 scientists tell the EU not to burn the world’s forests for ‘renewable’ energy in an open letter in The Guardian newspaper.

August 2018

EU clings to its doomed biomass policy in new Renewable Energy Directive for the period 2021 – 2030, continuing to incentivise increasing forest harvests, burning whole trees and large-scale inefficient electricity installations.

November 2018

In its long-term climate strategy, the Commission recognises the multiple climate risks of scaling up forest bioenergy.

December 2019

EU delegation at the 25th global climate summit says that science shows biomass burning produces significant carbon emissions.

Who’s involved?

In Europe we’re working with our partners the Finnish Association for Nature Conservation, the Swedish Society for Nature Conservation, Estonian Fund for Nature, and in the United States, with Dogwood Alliance and Partnership for Policy Integrity.

Scientists, academics, NGOs, economists and health experts all agree that burning of trees for power can be worse for the climate than burning coal, expensive and harmful to human health.

Is burning trees for energy harmful?

This briefing note explains why is it wrong to assume that all biomass use for energy is ‘carbon-neutral’.

Find out what the EU can do

Are forests the new coal?

This blog explores recent research about the dangers of extending the bioenergy industry and its emissions.

Read more

Linde Zuidema

Linde Zuidema

Forest and Climate Campaigner

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