Publications & Insight
Learning lessons from FLEGT-VPA to promote governance reform in Ghana’s cocoa sector
Cocoa is crucial to Ghana’s economy, but is also a significant driver of deforestation. The Ghana National REDD+ Strategy identifies agricultural expansion to be responsible for at least 50 per cent of deforestation, with cocoa a...
Making soft laws enforceable: How the EU can use human rights guidelines to fight agricultural deforestation
The purpose of this discussion paper, which draws on a detailed Fern report as well as an analysis we will soon be publishing, is to show the contours of a way forward. We intend it to start the conversation about how regulatory...
EU consumption of beef and deforestation
Cattle and deforestation
Beef production is the biggest agricultural driver of global forest loss. Forests in Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay, all members of the Mercosur trade bloc, are being destroyed on an epic scale to make...
EU consumption of cocoa and deforestation
Cocoa consumption is a major cause of deforestation – estimated to have destroyed an area of forest the size of Belgium between 1988 and 2008.
Other problems include endemic use of child labour, local tenure conflicts, and...
Recommendations for an EU Action Plan to Protect Forests and Respect Rights
Keeping forests standing and restoring ecosystems is essential if the world is to meet biodiversity objectives and the Paris Agreement goal of limiting global warming to 1.5 degrees.The EU will be an important player and has...
EU consumption of soy and deforestation
Soy is the second largest agricultural driver of deforestation after cattle products (with agriculture responsible for about 70 per cent of all deforestation). According to a 2013 study for the European Commission, soy expansion...
EU consumption of Palm Oil and deforestation
Palm oil is the world’s most commonly used vegetable oil. After beef and soya, palm oil is the third largest agricultural cause of deforestation. Global production has more than doubled since 1990, reaching 64.5 million tonnes in...
EU consumption and illegal deforestation
Half of all tropical deforestation since 2000 has been caused by illegal clearance of forests for commercial agriculture. This briefing is a summary of Fern’s new study "Stolen Goods", which reveals that the EU is one of the...