Publications & Insight
Learning lessons from FLEGT-VPA to promote governance reform in Ghana’s cocoa sector
Cocoa is crucial to Ghana’s economy, but is also a significant driver of deforestation. The Ghana National REDD+ Strategy identifies agricultural expansion to be responsible for at least 50 per cent of deforestation, with cocoa a...
Making soft laws enforceable: How the EU can use human rights guidelines to fight agricultural deforestation
The purpose of this discussion paper, which draws on a detailed Fern report as well as an analysis we will soon be publishing, is to show the contours of a way forward. We intend it to start the conversation about how regulatory...
EU consumption of beef and deforestation
Cattle and deforestation
Beef production is the biggest agricultural driver of global forest loss. Forests in Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay, all members of the Mercosur trade bloc, are being destroyed on an epic scale to make...
EU consumption of cocoa and deforestation
Cocoa consumption is a major cause of deforestation – estimated to have destroyed an area of forest the size of Belgium between 1988 and 2008.
Other problems include endemic use of child labour, local tenure conflicts, and...
Snake oil or climate cure - The effect of public funding on European bioenergy
If European Union targets are met, by the year 2020, 20 per cent of the EU’s energy consumption will come from renewable sources. In an attempt to achieve this target, the EU is investing heavily in new sources of energy,...
How the EU Governance Regulation can help achieve negative emissions
This briefing explains that there is effectively only one realistic and sustainable way to remove large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere (negative emissions): forests.With much of Europe’s land already taken up...
Bioenergy in the recast of the Renewable Energy Directive
The European Parliament is currently discussing the recast of the Renewable Energy Directive (RED II) which will determine how biomass can be used for energy towards meeting the EU’s renewable energy target and minimum...
Analysis of gender impacts of the Ghana Voluntary Partnership Agreement with European Union
Fern commissioned this study of gender issues in Ghana’s FLEGT VPA as a tentative first step to looking at gender issues which have to date received only scant attention. It offers TAYLOR CRABBE INITIATIVE’s observations about how...
Independent Forest Monitoring: a chance for improved governance in VPA countries?
The forest sector is particularly vulnerable to poor governance including corruption, fraud, and organised crime. Illegality in the sector generates vast sums of money and has helped fuel long and bloody conflicts. Even in...
Communities & forests in Kenya: Where are new laws taking them?
On 26 May 2017, the still-new African Court handed down a landmark ruling on a case brought against the Government of Kenya by the African Commission on Human and Peoples Rights on behalf of the Mau Ogiek forest dweller community....