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Agricultural commodity consumption in the EU - Cocoa

Cocoa consumption is a major cause of deforestation – estimated to have destroyed an area of forest the size of Belgium between 1988 and 2008. Other problems include endemic use of child labour, local tenure conflicts, and extreme poverty among cocoa farmers and their families. As the world’s largest importer, manufacturer and consumer of cocoa and cocoa products, the European Union (EU) has a special responsibility to help tackle these issues. Fern is calling for the EU to take action to ensure cocoa imports don’t cause deforestation, and pay farmers a fair income.

This is the third in a series of background notes on agricultural commodities.

Briefing notes in this series:

       


References for the findings in this briefing note:

1  World Bank, 2017. Eliminating Deforestation from the Cocoa Supply Chain: http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/876071495118818649/pdf/115144-REVISED-20170530-Cocoa-final-updated.pdf

2 https://atlas.media.mit.edu/en/profile/hs92/1801/

3 https://atlas.media.mit.edu/en/profile/hs92/1801/

4 World Bank, 2017.  Eliminating Deforestation from the Cocoa Supply Chain: http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/876071495118818649/pdf/115144-REVISED-20170530-Cocoa-final-updated.pdf

5 CBI Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2016.  CBI Trade Statistics: Cocoa in Europe: https://www.cbi.eu/sites/default/files/market_information/researches/trade-statistics-europe-cocoa-2016.pdf

6 Maria Squicciarini and Johan Swinnen (eds), 2016. The Economics of Chocolate, Ch. 2 (Oxford University Press).  

7 Maria Squicciarini and Johan Swinnen (eds), 2016. The Economics of Chocolate, Ch. 2 (Oxford University Press).  

8 CBI Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2016.  CBI Trade Statistics: Cocoa in Europe: https://www.cbi.eu/sites/default/files/market_information/researches/trade-statistics-europe-cocoa-2016.pdf

9 Percentages for Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana are an approximation.  According to ICCO data (see next footnote), Côte d’Ivoire was predicted to account for 39% of global production and Ghana 21% in 2015-16.

10 The percentages are calculated by the author from ICCO 2015-16 production forecast data: www.icco.org/economy/production.html

11 See for example Mongabay, July 2016: https://news.mongabay.com/2016/07/huge-cacao-plantation-in-peru-illegally-developed-on-forest-zoned-land/

12 European Commission, 2013.  The Impact of EU Consumption on Deforestation, European Commission Technical Report:   http://ec.europa.eu/environment/forests/pdf/1.%20Report%20analysis%20of%20impact.pdf

13https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2017/sep/13/chocolate-industry-drives-rainforest-disaster-in-ivory-coast

14 Francois Ruf & Frederic Varlet 2017, The Myth of Zero Deforestation Cocoa in Côte d’Ivoire

15 Mighty Earth, 2017.  Chocolate’s Dark Secret: www.mightyearth.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/chocolates_dark_secret_english_web.pdf

16 Regassa Namara, Boubacar Barry et al, 2011. An Overview of the Development Challenges and Constraints of the Niger Basin and Possible Intervention Strategies. (International Water Management Institute), p. 5

17 Financial Times, 18th December 2014: https://www.ft.com/content/80e196cc-8538-11e4-ab4e-00144feabdc0?mhq5j=e5

18 Maria Squicciarini and Johan Swinnen (eds), 2016. The Economics of Chocolate, Ch. 2 (Oxford University Press).  

19 Cocoa Barometer 2015: http://www.cocoabarometer.org/Download_files/Cocoa%20Barometer%202015%20Print%20Friendly%20Version.pdf

20 World Bank website: www.worldbank.org/en/news/feature/2016/06/08/ending-extreme-poverty

21 Financial Times, 22nd June 2017

22 November 2017 cocoa price information comes from the Nasdaq website:  www.nasdaq.com/markets/cocoa.aspx?timeframe=10y

23 Financial Times, 18th December 2014: www.ft.com/content/80e196cc-8538-11e4-ab4e-00144feabdc0?mhq5j=e5

24 http://www.childlaborcocoa.org/images/Payson_Reports/Tulane%20University%20-%20Two-Page%20Summary%20of%20Research%20Findings%20-%2030%20July%202015.pdf

25 See for example:  http://www.foodispower.org/slavery-chocolate/

26 See the work of Francois Ruf of CIRAD.  For example, this publication with Götz Schroth of UNDP: Chocolate_forests_and_monocultures: an_historical_review_of_cocoa_growing_and_its_conflicting_role_in_tropical_deforestation_and_forest_conservation: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/261713726_

27 UTZ website: https://utz.org/merger/

28 Mongabay, 2017: https://news.mongabay.com/2017/06/rainforest-alliance-utz-announce-merger-to-create-single-sustainability-standard-and-certification-program/

29 World Bank, 2017.  Eliminating Deforestation from the Cocoa Supply Chain: http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/876071495118818649/pdf/115144-REVISED-20170530-Cocoa-final-updated.pdf

30 Fern, 2016.  Company Promises: How Businesses are Meeting Commitments to End Deforestation: http://www.fern.org/sites/fern.org/files/Company%20promises.pdf

31  Francois Ruf & Frederic Varlet, 2017. The Myth of Zero Deforestation Cocoa in Côte d’Ivoire

32 World Cocoa Foundation information: http://www.worldcocoafoundation.org/cocoa-forests-initiative/

33 http://www.fern.org/blueprint

 

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